Ginger Page helps you express yourself naturally with translation between more than 40 languages.

Communicate effectively with anyone, anywhere, anytime.
Ginger Translate is free translation software that offers language translation between forty languages. This cutting-edge translation tool allows you to express yourself naturally in many languages including Spanish, French, German, Japanese, and many others.

Using Ginger Translate is easy. Simply choose a language and input the text you’d like the translation tool to transform. You can use this language translation software to communicate with others or to improve your own English skills.

Avoid making embarrassing translation mistakes with Ginger Translate.With this free translation software, you will find it is simple to express yourself naturally in the language of your choice.

Free download with just a click. Download Ginger’s translation software for free. It’s fast and easy and you can start translating your text everywhere.

English to German? French to Italian? Spanish to English? Ginger Translate has it all! With Translations between over 40 languages Ginger’s free translation software help you communicate with everyone, everywhere.

  • Advantage of Ginger :

Ginger uses statistical algorithms in conjunction with natural language processing, aiming to improve written communications, develop English speaking skills and boost smartphone productivity. The algorithm in ginger allows it to correct the written sentences with relatively high accuracy (eliminating up to 95 percent of writing errors), compared to standard spell checkers. Using Ginger Software, a student who may have dyslexia is able to write a sentence and then listen to their writing. This enables them to decide if what they have composed is correct. If they are not sure, they are able to choose a word from the list of alternative choices. Not only does Ginger’s Text To Speech offer the ability to enhance sentence correction, but for writers who struggle with pronunciation, they are also able to hear proper word pronunciation. This is very helpful for building better speech and literacy skills.

This is helpful for Bloggers, students, employees, office workers and all for those who use to write the documents. After installing this on your computer, you can use it anywhere. It works everywhere. You can use it in Microsoft Office files, WordPad or NotePad, Browsers, Social Sites and even in the post editor. Ginger provides an automatic spell checker, assisting people with learning difficulties such as dyslexia to improve their writing skills, through an intelligent automatic context-based correction of spelling mistakes and misused words.

  • Disadvantage of Ginger :
  1. When you install it, it takes too long.
  2. Although this system makes the application more potent, it also requires an extra flow of data between your computer and these servers. Moreover, the application becomes absolutely useless without Internet connection.
  3. It slows down your typing speed. Although a solution is to run Ginger only when you have finished typing, this will prevent you from benefiting from while-you-type correction.

Here’s the tutorial for use a Ginger :

Tutorial using a Ginger




Sources   :


Definition of the Translation.

  1. Definisi Penerjemahan

Seperti halnya ilmu-ilmu lain, di dalam bidang penerjemahan ditemukan banyak definisi. Berbagai definisi tersebut mencerminkan pandangan ahli yang membuat definsi tentang hakikat terjemahan dan proses penerjemahan.

Definisi pertama berasal dari Catford. Ia menulis:

(Translation is) the replacement of textual material in one language by equivalent textual material in another language (Catford, 1965:20).

Mungkin Anda sedikit bertanya-tanya sebab di dalam definisi tersebut tidak ditemukan konsep tentang makna. Sementara, secara garis besar terjemahan tidak bisa dipisahkan dari persoalan makna atau gagasan.

Ungkapan tentang hakikat penerjemahan yang menyentuh konsep makna diungkapkan oleh Savory (1968):

Translation is made possible by an equivalent of thought that lies behind its different verbal expressions.

Savory tidak lebih jauh lagi menyebut hal-hal yang operasional atau terkait dengan proses.

Proses penerjemahan disajikan secara lebih jelas oleh Nida dan Taber (1969). Merekamenyatakan:

Translating consists of reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.

Dalam bukunya Translation: Applications and Research, Brislin (1976) memberi batasan yang luas pada istilah penerjemahan. Bagi dia penerjemahan adalah pengalihan buah pikiran atau gagasan dari satu bahasa ke dalam bahasa lain. Kedua bahasa ini bisa serumpun, seperti bahasa Sunda dan Jawa, bisa dari lain rumpun, seperti bahasa Inggris dan Indonesia, atau bahkan bahasa yang sama tetapi dipakai pada kurun waktu yang berbeda, misalnya bahasa Jawa zaman Majapahit dan bahasa Jawa masa sekarang. Hanya saying dalam definisi ini tidak tersirat proses penerjamahan dan kriteria terjemahan yang baik.



  1. Definition of the Translation.

The same as other sciences, there are many definitions were found in the field of translation. Those various definitions reflect the view of experts who make the definition of the nature of translation and translation process.

First definition of the translation came from Catfrod, stated that :

(Translation is) the replacement of textual material in one language by equivalent textual material in another language (Catford, 1965:20).

Perhaps, you had a bit wondering because in the definition of the concept of the meaning can not be found. Meanwhile, speaking translations generally can not be separated from the question of meaning or idea.

The utterance of the nature of translation that reach the concept of meaning stated by Savory (1968) :

Translation is made possible by an equivalent of thought that lies behind its different verbal expressions. Savory does not further describe the operational matters or related processes.

The process of translation is more clearly presented by Nida and Taber (1969), they stated that : Translating consists of reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.

They stated in the book of the translation : application and research, Brislin (1976) give an extended limitation on the term of translation. To brislin, translation was the diversion of the mind or the idea from one language to another language.. Both languages can be cognate, such as Sundanese language and Javanese language, it can be from another cognate, such as English and Indonesian, or even the same languages but used in a different period of time., such as the Javanese majapahit.

Unfortunately in this definition is not implied the process of translation and criteria of a good translation.

Direct Speech (qouted speech) & Indirect Speech (Reported Speech)

Direct Speech

In direct speech, we convey the message of the speaker in his own actual words without any change to another person.

Indirect Speech

In indirect speech, we convey the message of the speaker in our own words to another person.

Procedure of changing direct speech into indirect speech

  1. Remove comma and inverted commas.
  2. Put “that” between the reporting and reported speeches.(it is optional to put “that” between the reporting and reported speech)
  3. Change the 1st letter of reported speech into small letter except for “I”
  4. Change the pronoun of the direct speech according to the rules described in table 2
  5. Change the tense of the direct speech appropriately according to rules described in table 3.
  6. Change the words expressing nearness in time or places of the direct speech into its appropriate words expressing distance as per table 1

Rules for changing Direct into Indirect Speech

  1. The past tense is often used when it is uncertain if the statement is true or when we are reporting objectively.
    Indirect Speech Conversion Direct Speech Condition
    Present Tenses in the Direct Speech are changed into Past Tense. If the reporting or principal verb is in the Past Tense.
    Do Not Change Tense of reported Speech in Indirect Speech sentence If in direct speech you find say/says or will say.
    Direct speech the words within the quotation marks talk of a universal truth or habitual action.
    The reporting verb is in a present tense.
  2. When there are two sentences combined with the help of a conjunction and both sentences have got different tenses. then change the tenses of both sentences according to the rule.
  3. Words expressing nearness in time or places are generally changed into words expressing distance.
    Change of place and time Direct Speech Word Indirect Speech Word
    Here There
    Today that day
    this morning that morning
    Yesterday the day before
    Tomorrow the next day
    next week the following week
    next month the following month
    Now Then
    Ago Before
    Thus So
    Last Night the night before
    This That
    These Those
    Hither Thither
    Hence Thence
    Come Go

Change in Pronouns

The pronouns of the Direct Speech are changed where necessary, according to their relations with the reporter and his hearer, rather than with the original speaker. If we change direct speech into indirect speech, the pronouns will change in the following ways.

Rules Direct Speech Indirect Speech
The first person of the reported speech changes according to the subject of reporting speech. She says, “I am in tenth class.” She says, “I am in tenth class.”
The second person of reported speech changes according to the object of reporting speech. He says to them, “You have completed your job.” He tells them that they have completed their job.
The third person of the reported speech doesn’t change. She says, “She is in tenth class.” She says that she is in tenth class.

Change in Tenses

The past perfect and past perfect continuous tenses do not change.

Rules Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Simple Present Changes
Simple Past
“I always drink coffee”, she said She said that she always drank coffee.
Present Continuous Changes
Past Continuous
“I am reading a book”, he explained. He explained that he was reading a book
Present Perfect Changes
Past Perfect
She said, “He has finished his work” She said that he had finished his work.
Present Perfect Continuous Changes
Past Perfect Continuous
“I have been to Spain”, he told me. He told me that he had been to Spain.
Simple Past Changes
Past Perfect
“Bill arrived on Saturday”, he said. He said that Bill had arrived on Saturday
Past Perfect Changes
Past Perfect (No Change In Tense)
“I had just turned out the light,” he explained. He explained that he had just turned out the light.
Past Continuous Changes
Past Perfect Continuous
“We were living in Paris”, they told me. They told me that they had been living in Paris.
Future Changes
Present Conditional
“I will be in Geneva on Monday”, he said He said that he would be in Geneva on Monday.
Future Continuous Changes
Conditional Continuous
She said, “I’ll be using the car next Friday.” She said that she would be using the car next Friday.

Changes for Imperative Sentences

Imperative sentences consist any of these four things:

  • Order
  • Request
  • Advice
  • Suggestion

Most commonly used words to join clauses together are ordered, requested, advised and suggested. Forbid(s)/ forbade is used for the negative sentences.

Mood of Sentence in Direct Speech Reporting verb in indirect verb
Order ordered
Request requested / entreated
Advice advised / urged
Never told, advised or forbade (No need of “not” after “forbade”)
Direction directed
Suggestion suggested to
Warning warn
(If a person is addressed directly) called
Direct speech and Indirect speech dalam kalimat Pernyataan (Statement):
1.     Direct         -> Dona says ‘Morgan is very strong’
        Indirect       -> Dona says that Morgan is very Strong
2.     Direct         ->  John said ‘ This egg is cheap’
         Indirect      -> John said that the egg was cheap
3.     Direct         -> Michel said ‘Tom will return ‘
        Indirect      ->  Michel said Tom would return
4.     Direct         -> Diana said ‘ I can speak Japanese ‘
         Indirect      -> Diana said that she could speak Japanese
5.     Direct         -> Carlos said ‘ I want to cry’
        Indirect      -> Carlos said he wanted to cry
Direct and Indirect Speech dalam kalimat Tanya (Questions)
1.     Direct         -> ‘How is betty?’
        Indirect      -> He asked me how betty was
2.     Direct         -> ’What is she doing?’
         Indirect      -> He asked me what she was doing
3.     Direct         -> ‘When will you have a test?’
        Indirect      -> He asked when I would have a test
4.     Direct         -> ‘Where is Helen?’
         Indirect      -> He asked where Helen was
Direct Speech and Indirect Speech dalam Kalimat (Requests):
1.     Direct         -> ‘Open the door, please’
        Indirect      -> He asked me to open the door
2.     Direct         -> ‘Please come here’
         Indirect      -> He asked me to come there
3.     Direct         -> ‘Sit down, please’
        Indirect      -> He asked me to sit down
4.     Direct         -> ‘Please have the tea’
         Indirect      -> He asked me to have the tea
5.     Direct         -> ‘Please help me’
         Indirect      -> He asked me to help him
Sources          :

Modal Auxiliaries

What are modal verbs?

Modals (also called modal verbs, modal auxiliary verbs, modal auxiliaries) are special verbs which behave irregularly in English. They are different from normal verbs like “work, play, visit…” They give additional information about the function of the main verb that follows it. They have a great variety of communicative functions.

Here are some characteristics of modal verbs:

  • They never change their form. You can’t add “s”, “ed”, “ing”…
  • They are always followed by an infinitive without “to” (e.i. the bare infinitive.)
  • They are used to indicate modality allow speakers to express certainty, possibility, willingness, obligation, necessity, ability.

2. Pattern of modal auxiliaries

Other helping verbs, called modal auxiliaries or modals, such as can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, and would, do not change form for different subjects. For instance, try substituting any of these modal auxiliaries for can with any of the subjects listed below.

you (singular)
you (plural)

can write well.

There is also a separate section on the Modal Auxiliaries, which divides these verbs into their various meanings of necessity, advice, ability, expectation, permission, possibility, etc., and provides sample sentences in various tenses. See the section on Conditional Verb Forms for help with the modal auxiliary would. The shades of meaning among modal auxiliaries are multifarious and complex. Most English-as-a-Second-Language textbooks will contain at least one chapter on their usage. For more advanced students, A University Grammar of English, by Randolph Quirk and Sidney Greenbaum, contains an excellent, extensive analysis of modal auxiliaries.

The analysis of Modal Auxiliaries is based on a similar analysis in The Scott, Foresman Handbook for Writers by Maxine Hairston and John J. Ruszkiewicz. 4th ed. HarperCollins: New York. 1996. The description of helping verbs on this page is based on The Little, Brown Handbook by H. Ramsay Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, & Kay Limburg. 6th ed. HarperCollins: New York. 1995. By permission of Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc. Examples in all cases are our own.

                                                  Uses of Can and Could

The modal auxiliary can is used

  • to express ability (in the sense of being able to do something or knowing how to do something):
    He can speak Spanish but he can’t write it very well.
  • to expression permission (in the sense of being allowed or permitted to do something):
    Can I talk to my friends in the library waiting room? (Note thatcan is less formal than may. Also, some writers will object to the use of can in this context.)
  • to express theoretical possibility:
    American automobile makers can make better cars if they think there’s a profit in it.

The modal auxiliary could is used

  • to express an ability in the past:
    I could always beat you at tennis when we were kids.
  • to express past or future permission:
    Could I bury my cat in your back yard?
  • to express present possibility:
    We could always spend the afternoon just sitting around talking.
  • to express possibility or ability in contingent circumstances:
    If he studied harder, he could pass this course.

In expressing ability, can and could frequently also imply willingness: Can you help me with my homework?

                                              Can versus May

Whether the auxiliary verb can can be used to express permission or not — “Can I leave the room now?” [“I don’t know if you can, but you may.”] — depends on the level of formality of your text or situation. As Theodore Bernstein puts it in The Careful Writer, “a writer who is attentive to the proprieties will preserve the traditional distinction: can for ability or power to do something, may for permission to do it.

The question is at what level can you safely ignore the “proprieties.” Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, tenth edition, says the battle is over and cancan be used in virtually any situation to express or ask for permission. Most authorities, however, recommend a stricter adherence to the distinction, at least in formal situations.


                                          Uses of May and Might

Two of the more troublesome modal auxiliaries are may and might. When used in the context of granting or seeking permission, might is the past tense of mayMight is considerably more tentative than may.

  • May I leave class early?
  • If I’ve finished all my work and I’m really quiet, might I leave early?

In the context of expressing possibility, may and might are interchangeable present and future forms and might + have + past participle is the past form:

  • She might be my advisor next semester.
  • She may be my advisor next semester.
  • She might have advised me not to take biology.

Avoid confusing the sense of possibility in may with the implication ofmight, that a hypothetical situation has not in fact occurred. For instance, let’s say there’s been a helicopter crash at the airport. In his initial report, before all the facts are gathered, a newscaster could say that the pilot “mayhave been injured.” After we discover that the pilot is in fact all right, the newscaster can now say that the pilot “might have been injured” because it is a hypothetical situation that has not occurred. Another example: a body had been identified after much work by a detective. It was reported that “without this painstaking work, the body may have remained unidentified.” Since the body was, in fact, identified, might is clearly called for.

                                         Uses of Will and Would

In certain contexts, will and would are virtually interchangeable, but there are differences. Notice that the contracted form ‘ll is very frequently used for will.

Will can be used to express willingness:

  • I’ll wash the dishes if you dry.
  • We’re going to the movies. Will you join us?

It can also express intention (especially in the first person):

  • I’ll do my exercises later on.

and prediction:

  • specific: The meeting will be over soon.
  • timeless: Humidity will ruin my hairdo.
  • habitual: The river will overflow its banks every spring.

Would can also be used to express willingness:

  • Would you please take off your hat?

It can also express insistence (rather rare, and with a strong stress on the word “would”):

  • Now you’ve ruined everything. You would act that way.

and characteristic activity:

  • customary: After work, he would walk to his home in West Hartford.
  • typical (casual): She would cause the whole family to be late, every time.

In a main clause, would can express a hypothetical meaning:

  • My cocker spaniel would weigh a ton if I let her eat what she wants.

Finally, would can express a sense of probability:

  • I hear a whistle. That would be the five o’clock train.
                                                       Uses of Used to

The auxiliary verb construction used to is used to express an action that took place in the past, perhaps customarily, but now that action no longer customarily takes place:

  • We used to take long vacation trips with the whole family.

The spelling of this verb is a problem for some people because the “-ed” ending quite naturally disappears in speaking: “We yoostoo take long trips.” But it ought not to disappear in writing. There are exceptions, though. When the auxiliary is combined with another auxiliary, did, the past tense is carried by the new auxiliary and the “-ed” ending is dropped. This will often happen in the interrogative:

  • Didn’t you use to go jogging every morning before breakfast?
  • It didn’t use to be that way.

Used to can also be used to convey the sense of being accustomed to or familiar with something:

  • The tire factory down the road really stinks, but we’re used to it by now.
  • I like these old sneakers; I’m used to them.

Used to is best reserved for colloquial usage; it has no place in formal or academic text.


1. _________ I have more cheese on my sandwich?
a) Must
b) Could
c) Would
d) Have to

2. You _________ eat more vegetables.
a) should
b) might
c) may
d) could

3. I _________ like to buy the same television for my house.
a) could
b) must
c) would
d) have to

4. _________ I have a coffee please?
a) Must
b) Have to
c) May
d) Would

5. You _________ smoke near children.
a) have to
b) may
c) shouldn’t
d) couldn’t

6. The passengers _________wear their seatbelts at all times.
a) could
b) must
c) can
d) may

7. We _________ go to the concert if the rain stops. We don’t know for sure.
a) mustn’t
b) might
c) have to
c) wouldn’t

8. I _________ ice skate very well.
a) can
b) may
c) must
d) should

9. The boys _________wake up earlier than 7:30 am. They have class at 8:00 am.
a) would
b) can’t
c) could
d) have to

10. The rock band _________play very well last year. Now they are much beter.
a) must
b) couldn’t
c) can
c) should


Sources    :

Why the GPA is not the only point of qualification that required?

                        Everybody thinks that the GPA is the most important thing that required on the jobs qualification. Exactly, the GPA isn’t the only one thing that matters in order to looking for a job. If you have a high GPA is that number on your GPA could be something  that required? That number perhaps doesn’t show any special skills that you have. Besides of academics, you should have another special skills, for instance, good at operation Microsoft Excel, if you are good at graphic design/can design something this skill would reach you to make money.

                        Also, you should to look good in the interview. First impression is important. You can’t go to the office that you already applied then you get a call to come to join the interview test with bad dresses. I mean, with dirty skirt or dress or shirt or anything else that makes you look so bad on that day. You can’t join the interview with tired-face or with face full of sweat, you must look so fresh, give them the best smile of you. If you were a woman is it easy to you to put the make up on.

                        Usually, there are some test that perhaps the office would give to you. One of them is physchotest, in the pshyschotest is about mathematics, logics, reading, etc. That material is so different that you had in the university. This test is taken from different things that you have learned in the university, so, you have to know something new in the out of your knowledge, to increase your knowledge you must do a lot of reading. Don’t forget that mathematics also important too, life is about calculate everything if you realised, you get money you should count them all in order to know the amount of money is true.

                        If you are from English department student, lucky you, ‘cause almost all of the offices want you to speak english. But right now, not only English Department students that can speak english so good but other students aswell. Also complete yourself with confident, can work as a team and experiences. It could be nothing if you can’t be confident in the front of people, you can’t explain yourself even though yourself is worth to choose. If you can work as a team, it would help you to have a good communication with the others in the office and the last is experiences, your GPA is good, you got some skills but don’t have any experiences??? Maybe it could be minus for you. For the first time you don’t have any experiences, you just follow what the office give to you with perhaps minimum salary but if you already have one experience it could be something that makes your salary up to the better number than before.

                        Therefore, in order to looking for a job don’t always focus in the GPA. I don’t say that the high GPA is bad, but beside of the GPA that you had, you must have something good with you like another skill that can make yourself so eye-catching. Go improve your skills, your knowledge, show the best version of you. You were born not only to live but to give a life a meaning with all your mistakes and stories.

Conditional Clause ( IF CLAUSE )


A type of adverbial clause that states a hypothesis or condition, real or imagined. A sentence containing one or more conditional clauses and a main clause (which expresses the result of the condition) is called aconditional sentence.

A conditional clause is most often introduced by the subordinating conjunction if. Other conditional subordinators include unless, even if, provided that, on condition that, as long as, and in case of.

(Note that unless functions as a negative subordinator.)

Conditional clauses tend to come at the beginning of complex sentences, but (like other adverbial clauses) they may also come at the end.

What are condition?

“Conditions deal with imagined situations: some are possible, some are unlikely, some are impossible. The speaker/writer imagines that something can or cannot happen or have happened, and then compares that situation with possible consequences or outcomes, or offers further logical conclusions about the situation.”
(R. Carter, Cambridge Grammar of English. Cambridge University Press, 2006)

Stylistic Advice : Positioning Conditional Clause

“Conditional clauses have traditionally been placed at the beginning of a sentence, but you should feel free to place a conditional clause elsewhere if doing so would make the provision easier to read. The longer the conditional clause, the more likely it is that the provision would be more readable with the matrix clauserather than the conditional clause at the front of the sentence. If both the conditional clause and the matrix clause contain more than one element, you would likely be better off expressing them as two sentences.”
(Kenneth A. Adams, A Manual of Style for Contract Drafting. American Bar Association, 2004)

General Conditional Clause (verb forms)

   If I had a hammer, I’d hammer in the morning,
   I’d hammer in the evening, all over this land.
   I’d hammer out danger, I’d hammer out warning,
   I’d hammer out love between my brothers and my sisters
   Oh, oh, all over this land.

   If I had a bell, I’d ring it in the morning,
   I’d ring it in the evening, all over this land.
   I’d ring out danger, I’d ring out warning,
   I’d ring out love between my brothers and my sisters 
   Oh, oh, all over this land.

So go the first two stanzas of Lee Hays and Pete Seeger’s folk tune, “If I had a hammer,” one of the most famous tunes and lyrics in the history of American song. The grammar of the lyrics uses what is called the conditional. The writer expresses an action or an idea (hammering out danger and warning and love) that is dependent on a condition, on something that is only imagined (having a hammer or a bell — or, in the next stanza, a song). In this situation, the lyricist imagines what he would do if he “had a hammer” — now, in the present. He might also have imagined what he would have done if he “had had a hammer,” in the past, prior to something else happening :

  • “If I had had a hammer, I would have hammered a warning.”

     The conditional is possible also in the future tense:

  • “If I have a hammer tomorrow, I might hammer out warning.
    . . . I will hammer out warning.”
    “If I were to have a hammer tomorrow, I would hammer out warning.”

 And, finally, he could imagine what is called the habitual present conditional:

  • “If/when I have a hammer, I hammer out warning.” [I do it all the time, whenever I have a hammer.]

Conditional sentences are made up of two parts: the if-clause (condition) and the main clause (result that follows).

If it rains, will take an umbrella.

Basically, there are four conditionals:

Apart from them, you can also form mixed conditionals.

The easiest way is to understand that both clauses (the if-clause and the main clause) can be real or unrealand refer to present (future) or past. Depending on these factors, the clause will look different.

Real conditional describes real-life, possible situations.

Unreal conditional describes imaginary situations.

We’ll deal with each clause separately.


First of all, you must decide if the situation in the if-clause is real or unreal.

Examples of real if-clauses:

  • I have some money, I go to a club. (zero conditional or first conditional can be used)
    It’s a situation that happens very often.
  • When my uncle visited us, he would always help me with my homework.
    My uncle visited us many times.

Examples of unreal if-clauses.

  • If I could fly, I…
    But that will never happen.
  • If she had told me about that,…
    but she didn’t tell me.

Once you’ve decided about that, it’s time to choose the correct tense. As I mentioned, there are two choices : the present (future) or the past.

Examples of present if-clauses:

  • If meet him again, I will tell him that. (zero conditional or first conditional can be used)
    I will probably meet him soon.
  • If I were a bit taller, I would be more attractive.
    But I’m not taller.

Examples of past if-clauses:

  • When my uncle visited us, he would always help me with my homework.
    My uncle visited us many times.
  • If she had told me about that,…
    But she didn’t tell me.

If these examples have confused you a bit, don’t worry — I’m sure everything will become more and more obvious in just a moment.

The table below sums up what has been said about the if-clause.

1 Real Unreal
2 Present / Future Simple Present
If he says
Simple Past
If he said
Past Simple Past
If he said
Past Perfect
If he had said


The main-clause is also formed in two steps: first decide if you’re talking about a real or an unreal situation, and then choose the correct tense.

If the main-clause is real, then it is exactly the same as a normal sentence. For example:

  • If he’s late again, I will fire him. (first conditional]
    The situation is real because it can happen at any time.
  • If the weather was nice, she often walked to work.
    The situation is real because it happened (at least according to the speaker).

If  the main-clause is unreal, then it is formed in accordance with the table below:

Present / Future Modal + Infinitive
Examples: would, might, should, could
Past Modal + Perfect Infinitive
Examples: would have, might have, should have, could have
  • If it wasn’t raining, we would go for a walk. (second conditional)
    But it is raining.
  • If he had been late again, I would have fired him. (third conditional)
    But he wasn’t late.

OK, so far I’ve been mostly using examples that were, in fact, the four basic conditionals (as mentioned in the parentheses) and the Mixed Conditional. If these were the only conditional sentences that there are, two thirds of this article would be worthless. Of course, that’s not the case – the purpose of this was to use simpler sentences that would accustom you to the method b) .

Now that you are accustomed to it (I hope you are!), we can proceed to the more advanced examples, which are the essence of the article. Let’s start:

1. If neither of you saw the dog, I might have had hallucinations.

The if-clause is about a real situation. The main-clause is unreal because the speaker is unsure of the truth. Both clauses are about the past.

If it were a part of conversation, it might look similar to this:

1: Have you seen that? Something has moved in the bushes.
2: Where?!
1: Over there. It’s a dog!
2: We can’t see anything there, Mark.
The next day (Mark’s conclusion) :

The pattern in every if-clause types are :

1.Zero Conditional

The zero conditional is used when describing situations which have automatic or habitual results. Using this conditional suggests that we are 100% sure of the result.

  • If you heat ice, it melts. (will melt is also possible)
  • If there is a shortage of any product, prices of that product go up.
  • My parents get angry if I come home late.

As you can see, both the main clause and the if-clause are in the Present Simple.

The zero conditional is often used to give instructions:

  • Press the button if you want a receipt.
  • If you want to leave a message, speak after the tone.

2.First Conditional

We use the First Conditional to talk about a future situation that is possible.

The verb in the if-clause is in the present tense; the verb in the main clause is in the Future Simple. It doesn’t matter which comes first. There is usually a comma between the two clauses.

  • If you try very hard, you’ll see the difference.
  • John will be late, if you don’t lend him your car.

This type of sentence implies that the action is very probable.

Note that the meaning here is present or future, but the main verb in the if-clause is in a present, not future tense.

1 . Possible variations of the basic form

Sometimes instead of if + present + future, we may have:

a) if  + present + may/might (possibility)

  • If the climate keeps warming, the Arctic might be warm enough for swimming.

b) if + present + may (permission) or can (permission or ability)

  • If your documents are in order, you may/can leave at once. (permission)
  • If it stops raining, we can go out.” (permission or ability)

c) if + present + must, should or any expression of command, request or advice

  • if you want to look slim, you must/should eat less meat.
  • if you want to look slim, you had better eat less meat.
  • if you want to look slim,  eat less meat.

d) When if is used to mean as/since, a variety of tenses can be used in the main clause

⇒ Variations of the If-clause

Instead of if + present tense, we can have:
a) if + present continuous, to indicate a present actions or a future arrangement.”

  • If you are waiting for a bus (present action), you’d better join the queue.
  • If you are looking for Peter, you’ll find him  upstairs.
  • If you’re staying for another night (future arrangement), I’ll ask the manager to give you a better room.

b) if + present perfect

  • if you have finished dinner, I’ll ask the waiter for the bill.
  • If has written the letter, I’ll post it.
  • If they haven’t seen the museum, we’d better go there today.

3.Second Conditional

We use the Second Conditional:

  • to give advice
  • to talk about a future situation that is unlikely to happen
If he did that, would leave him.

The verb in the if-clause is in the past tense; the verb in the main clause is in the conditional tense.

  • If someone stole my bag, I would immediately contact the police. (But I don’t think that anyone will try to steal the bag. The meaning here is future.)


There is no difference between the first and second conditionals as far as time is concerned. The first conditional, like the second conditional refers to the present or future. The past tense in the if-clause is not a true past but a subjunctive, which indicates improbability or unreality.


1. When the supposition is contrary to known facts

“If I lived in New York, I wouldn’t have to commute there each day.” (But I don’t live in New York.)

“If I were you, I would plant some trees in your garden.” (But I’m not you.)

2. When we don’t expect the action in the if-clause to happen:

“If I saw a zombie, I would run as fast as I could.” (But I don’t expect to see a zombie.)

“If I bought a car like this, everyone would admire me.” (But I don’t intend to buy the car.)

Possible variations of the basic form

Variations of the main clause might or could may be used instead of would:

  • If you tried again, you would succeed. (certain result)
  • If you tried again, you might succeed. (possible result)
  • If I knew her number, I could ring her up. (ability)
  • If he had a permit, he could get a job. (ability or permission)

The continuous conditional form may be used instead of the simple:

  • Peter is on holiday; he is touring Italy. ~ “If I were on holiday I would/might be touring Italy too.”

4.Third Conditional

We use it when talking about a past condition that cannot be fulfilled, because the action in the if-clause didn’t happen.

For example, imagine that you missed a train (and as a result you were late for an important meeting). You could say:

  • If I hadn’t missed the train, I wouldn’t have been late for the meeting.

Do you know what tenses each of the clauses is in? Let’s see:

  • The verb in the if-clause is in the Past Perfect Tense
  • The verb in the main clause is in the Perfect Conditional
If-clause (Past Perfect) Main clause (Perfect Conditional)
If I hadn’t missed the train, I wouldn’t have been late for the meeting.

More examples:

  • If I had known that you were coming, I would have met you at the railway station. (But I didn’t know that you were coming so I didn’t come)
  • If he had tried to leave the country, he would have been stopped at the frontier. (But he didn’t try)

⇒ Variations

The form of the conditional can be a little different.

a) could or might may be used instead of would:

If the rescue crew had found him earlier, they could have saved his life. (ability)
If the rescue crew had found him earlier, they might have saved his life. (possibility)
If we had the necessary documents, we could have left at once. (ability or permission)

b) The continuous form of the Perfect Conditional may be used:

If I had had any money I would have been watching the film with my girlfriend that evening.

c) We can use the Past Perfect Continuous in the if-clause:

I wasn’t wearing a seat belt. If I had been wearing one, I wouldn’t have been seriously injured.

d) A combination of types 2 and 3 is possible:

The airplane I intended to catch crashed. If I had caught that airplane, I would have been killed or I would be dead now(type 3)

If he had worked harder at school, he would be working in a comfortable office now; he wouldn’t be sweeping the streets. (But I didn’t work hard at school and now he is sweeping the streets.)

e) Using inversion, we can place “had” before the subject, omitting the “if”: For example, instead of saying:

If you had obeyed orders this disaster would not have happened.
we can say:

Had you told me about your problems, this disaster would not have happened.

5.Mixed Conditional

Mixed conditionals are those unreal conditional sentences whose time in the if-clause is different than the time in the main-clause. Let’s first have a look at unreal conditional sentences:

If she were shorter, she would be more attractive.
I am busy next week. If I had time, I would come to your party.
If they hadn’t trained hard, they wouldn’t have won.

As you can see, they refer to the same time : the present, the future or the past. If we mix the sentences, we get mixed conditionals.

Past and Present

If my father hadn’t lost his keys, we wouldn’t have to wait until he finds them.
But my father lost his keys and therefore we have to wait until he finds them.

If I had installed an anti-virus, my computer wouldn’t be so slow now.
But I didn’t install an anti-virus and therefore my computer is so slow now.

If our house had been broken into, we would be very sad.
But our house wasn’t broken into and we aren’t sad.

Past and Future

If our house had been broken into, we would call the police.
But our house wasn’t broken into and we are not going to call police.

If we had won the lottery last week, we would buy a new sofa today.
But we didn’t win the lottery and we are not going to buy a new sofa today.

Present and Past

If I were smarter, I would have graduated from Stanford.
But I am not smarter and therefore I didn’t graduate from Stanford.

If Mary weren’t a snob, she wouldn’t have had so many parties this year.
But Mary is a snob and therefore she had so many parties this year.

Present and Future

If you were more eloquent, you would become a politician.
But I am not more eloquent and I won’t become a politician.

If you had more time, I would go to the cinema with you.
But you don’t have more time and I won’t go to the cinema with you.


  1. If Jake ____ the money, he will go to America ( have )
  2. If I had a lot of money, I _____ some to charity ( give )
  3. If the girls _____ shopping, they would have bought some new shoes. ( go )
  4. If I _____ her, I would wear the red top. ( be )
  5. If Pete were hungry, he ______ hamburger. ( eat )

Sources    :

Active and Passive

  1.  In an active sentence, the subject performs the action of the verb. An active sentence is the opposite of a passive sentence.  Examples:
  • The dog ate all the biscuits.

(In this example, The dog is the subject of the sentence. The dog is the subject of the verb to eat. The dog is performing the action of the verb; i.e., it is the thing doing the eating.)

Compare this to a passive version:

  • The biscuits were eaten by the dog.

(In this example, the biscuits did not perform the action of the verb. In fact, it was done to them. Therefore, this is a passive sentence.)

Examples of active sentences :

  • Tony is trimming the hedges all week.

(Tony is doing the action (trimming))

  • Hammerhead sharks will pester you as you approach the reef.

(Hammerhead sharks doing the action (pester))

In a passive sentence, the subject does not perform the action in the sentence. In fact, the action is performed on it.  For example    :

how to use passive in the sentence.

Example of passive sentences             :

Anita was driven to the theatre. (In this example, Anita did not perform the action of the verb to drive. The action was done to her. She was the recipient of the action.)

  • Nowadays, black kites are protected.

(The action is being done to the subject, black kites.)

  • The olives are stoned and crushed in this room.

(The action is being done to the subject, The olives.)

With a passive sentence, use By to show the actor     :

In a passive sentence, the person or thing doing the action (the actor) is usually preceded by the word by. For example:

  • Anita was driven to the theatre by Carla.
  • Nowadays, black kites are protected by law.
  • The olives are stoned and crushed in this room by my son.

The opposite of a passive sentence is an active sentence, in which the subject does perform the action of the verb.

2.  Characteristics of active and passive sentences are            :

  • Find the subject (the main character of the sentence).
  • Find the main verb (the action that the sentence identifies).
  • Examine the relationship between the subject and main verb.
    • Does the subject perform the action of the main verb? (If so, the sentence is active.)
    • Does the subject sit there while something else — named or unnamed —performs an action on it? (If so, the sentence is passive.)
    • Can’t tell? If the main verb is a linking verb (“is,” “was,” “are,” “seems (to be),” “becomes” etc.), then the verb functions like an equals sign; there is no action involved — it merely describes a state of being.

Basic examples                       :


  • The subject “I”
  • Action “Loving”
  • Relationship the subject (“I”) is the one performing the action (“loving”).

So, it is an active sentences.


  • The subject “you”
  • Action “loving”
  • Relationship the subject (“You”) sits passively while the action (“loving”) is performed by somebody else (“me”).

So, it is a passive sentences.

3.   How to perform Active and Passive in several Tenses           :

Active                                     Passive

  • Past Tense                      I taught; I learned.                  I was (have been) taught                                                                                          by(someone).                                                                                                           It was (has been) learned by                                                                                      (someone).
  • Present Tense                 I teach; I learn.                        I am (being) taught by                                                                                               (someone).                                                                                                              It is (being) learned by                                                                                               (someone).
  • Present Continuous         Sarah is writing the letter         The letter (is being written)                                                                                       by Sarah.
  • Past Continuous              She was writing the novel         A novel (was being written)                                                                                       by her.
  • Present Perfect                Many tourists have visited         The castle (have been                                                the castle.                                visited) by many tourist.
  • Past Perfect                     George had repaired                  Many cars (had been                                                                                                  repaired) by George before                                                                                        he received his mechanic’s                                                                                        license.
  • With modals                    You must obey                          The traffic rules (must be)                                                                                          obeyed.
  • Intransitive verb             The earthquake happened          The earthquake (was                                                                                                happened) on March 11,                                                                                            2011 in Japan.
  • Transitive verb                The tsunami wave killed             Hundreds of people (were                                                                                          killed) the tsunami wave.

Sources              :

Proposal Usaha Bisnis Bersama




DI SUSUN OLEH                 :

  1. ETIKA ASRORI PUTRI (12612567)
  2. RIFKI KANIJAYA (16612341)

Semakin maraknya dunia bisnis di Indonesia yang semakin tahun semakin berkembang ide-ide dari para masyarakatnya, ide-ide mereka pun terbilang unik dan gila dalam menarik konsumen untuk membeli barang yang sedang mereka coba tawarkan. Dari berbagai jenis bisnis yang ada di Indonesia, dari mulai berjualan baju online, sepatu online, rumah makan, dll. Tidak sedikit dari mereka yang berhasil dalam menjalankan usaha bisnisnya.

Oleh karena itu kami mencoba membuka peluang bisnis baru dengan ide kreatif kami yaitu membuat Capitano Sportaurant, karena seiring dengan perkembangan dunia olahraga di dunia dan di Indonesia khususnya, terlebih lagi cabang olahraga sudah menjadi industri yang cukup menggoda bagi para penggila olahraga dan makin bertambah nya penggila olahraga di Indonesia.  Dari sekian banyak cabang olahraga kami memilih cabang olahraga sepak bola sebagai konsep utama kami ditambah banyaknya penggila sepak bola di Indonesia, tidak hanya penggila hobi olahraga sepak bola saja bahkan penggila sepak bola yang hanya menikmati sepak bola lewat menonton pertandingan saja juga banyak.

Maka kami selaku penggiat usaha berencana membuka usaha restaurant yang dipadukan dengan hiburan olahraga, karna menurut kami konsep ini masih sulit ditemukan di Indonesia.


Berikut ini adalah manfaat usaha kami dari segi ekonomi dan sosial       :


Dilihat dari segi ekonomi, bisnis kuliner ini sangat menjanjikan dan dapat memudahkan para pecinta kuliner untuk menikmati makanannya dengan konsep yang unik. Karena menu kami akan disajikan dengan nama-nama yang unik sehingga dapat mengingatkan para konsumen dengan idola mereka disepakbola. Dengan didirikannya restoran ini, juga dapat membantu pemerintah mengurangi angka pengangguran di Indonesia.


Dari segi sosial, bisnis restroan ini tentu saja memiliki target pasar ( sasaran pelanggan )yang tidak akan mengusik resotran lain, tentu saja target kami adalah para pencita bola dari berbagai kalangan di Indonesia. Dimana para pencita bola ini dapat juga melaksanakan nonton bareng (nobar) di Restoran kami.

  1. Apakah keunggulan dari “CAPITANO SPORTAURANT?
  2. Siapakah segmentasi pasar dari“CAPITANO SPORTAURANT?
  3. Bagaimana langkah-langkah promosi yang dilakukan untuk memperkenalkan serta menarik minat masyarakat agar tidak segan dan tidak bosan untuk datang ke“CAPITANO SPORTAURANT?

CAPITANO SPORTAURANT ini bukanlah tempat makan biasa. Dimana di restoran kami ini tidak hanya menyajikan menu-menu yang unik namun juga menyediakan tempat yang asik untuk berkumpul para pencita sepak bola. Tidak hanya itu saja, ada menu tambahan seperti ayam bakar/goreng yang juga memiliki rasa yang unik, ayam-ayam yang disajikan oleh CAPITANO SPORTAURANT ini adalah ayam-ayam pilihan yang dibeli oleh seorang peternak ayam yang handal, yaitu, Etika Asrori Putri.

Beberapa contoh menu yang disajikan oleh CAPITANO SPORTAURANT diantaranya adalah    :

  1. Ayam tendangan Messi

Ayam tendangan Messi adalah ayam goreng/bakar yang disajikan dengan sambal yang begitu pedas, saking pedasnya seperti merasa akan ditendang oleh Lionel Messi. Dengan cabai-cabai pilihan, ditambah dengan bumbu-bumbu lainnya di jamin akan membuat lidah kalian bergoyang.

2.  Ayam kalem Gerrard

Semua orang pasti tahu Steven Gerrard si kaptain timnas Inggris itu, mengapa ayam ini disebut ayam kalem Gerrard karena kita tahu bahwa Steven Gerrard sangatlah kalem di dalam lapangan, dia adalah seorang pemain yang tidak banyak protes. Begitu juga dengan menu kami ini dimana ayam bakar/goreng kami disajikan dengan sambal asam manis yang membuat hati para konsumen kalem nantinya.

3.  Ayam Pamungkas

Nama menu ini terinspirasi dari seorang pemain sepakbola Indonesia yang begitu terkenal yaitu Bambang Pamungkas, ide ini muncul agar para pemuda/pemudi Indonesia tidak lupa bahwa Indonesia pun memiliki pemain yang cukup handal di lapangan. Disamping itu juga, menu ini akan disajikan dengan ayam goreng/bakar dengan mentega yang kami harapkan dapat menjadi senjata pamungkas di restoran kami ini.

Berikut beberapa keunggulan dari CAPITANO SPORTAURANT ini                     :

  1. Restoran ini didekorasi dengan konsep yang sporty dimana dinding akan dihiasi dengan foto-foto para pemain sepakbola tidak lupa juga klub-klub sepak bola di dunia, di restoran kami ini juga sebagai tempat nobar (nonton bareng) pertandingan bola seperti piala dunia/liga italia/liga eropa/liga Indonesia, dll.
  2. Restoran kami pun memiliki menu-menu yang tidak kalah menariknya dengan restoran lain bahkan kalau soal rasa pun boleh diadu dengan restoran lain, rasa-rasa yang ada di restoran ini pun bisa diancungkan dengan jempol.
  3. Restoran ini juga didirikan di pusat kota dimana semua orang dapat dengan mudah menemukan restoran kami ini.
  4. Harga-harga yang tersedia di restoran kami ini pun juga terjangkau.


Ø  Menu-menu makanan maupun minuman yang bersinergi dengan konsep restaurant

Ø  Kualitas rasa maupun penyajian makanan yang memuaskan konsumen

Ø  Restaurant dengan jangkauan harga menu yang cukup terjangkau

Ø  Lokasi restaurant yang sangat strategis


Ø  Konsep utama yang mungkin tidak cocok bagi masyarakat luas

Ø  Persaingan Menu dengan restaurant lain

Ø  Kurang nya modal untuk menambah variasi menu


Setelah mengamati perkembangan restoran kami  ± satu tahun yang mendapatkan kemajuan yang sangat signifikan yaitu dengan bertambahnya pelanggan, serta bertambahnya penjualan menu-menu yang telah tersedia di restoran kami ini. Maka pihak restoran akan menambahkan beberapa strategi baru untuk mempertahankan kualitas dan kuantitas restoran dan meningkatkan pelayanan untuk kepuasan pelanggan serta penambahan laba bagi restoran.  Restoran juga akan bekerja sama dengan beberapa tempat futsal lainnya, agar semakin banyak para pencinta sepak bola yang mampir ke restoran kami, dimana kami dapat mempromosikan tempat futsal itu juga dan sebaliknya. Tidak dipungkiri untuk restoran membuka cabang di daerah atau kota-kota lain di Indonesia.


Target pasar dari restoran ini adalah semua kalangan dan juga para penggila sepak bola.

Karena makan adalah kebutuhan pokok manusia, maka tidak heran jika restoran “CAPITANO SPORTAURANT” akan memiliki banyak pesaing. Tetapi adanya kehadiran pesaing justru membuat kami semakin terpacu untuk bersaing secara sehat dengan terus meningkatkan kualitas dan kuantitas restoran.


Restoran ini menargetkan sasaran pembeli dari seluruh kalangan mulai dari anak-anak, remaja hingga orang dewasa.


Startegi pemasaran dari CAPITANO POSRTAURANT ini, adalah :

  1. Membagikan brosur kepada orang-orang yang lalu-lalang di dekat restoran.
  2. Membuat banner tentang restoran kami serta memasang iklan restoran kami dibaliho.
  3. Melalui media sosial seperti Facebook, Twitter, Instagram serta tak lupa membuat website sendiri dengan URL
  4. Mengadakan kerjasama dengan tempat latihan futsal agar kami juga bisa memasang brosur disana untuk memberitahu juga kepada para penggila sepakbola bahwa direstoran kami juga menyediakan tempat untuk nobar.

Apabila restoran “CAPITANO RESTAURANT” ini dapat menghasilkan profit yang lumayan bagus setelah ± dua tahun bisnis ini berjalan, maka restoran telah balik modal. Dan jika usaha ini terus berkembang dan dapat diterima oleh masyarakat luas maka restoran masih terus dapat bertahan dan hanya perlu mengembangkan ide-ide baru agar usaha ini terus berjalan dan tidak mengalami rugi serta juga menjaga konsistensi dan eksistensi untuk menjaga berlajannya bisnis restoran ini.


Modal awal yang dibutuhkan :

  1. 30 juta ( pemilik ide dari penjual Ayam yang juga akan men-supply ayam-ayam nya untuk dijadikan baha dasar dari menu restoran ini)
  2. 40 juta ( pemilik ide dari “CAPITANO SPORTAURANT” )


Jumlah: Rp. 70 juta

No. Nama Barang Harga
1. Kontrak toko /bulan Rp. 3.000.000
2. Kursi, Meja, Lemari Rp. 7.000.000
3. Pemanggang roti (2 unit) Rp. 500.000
4. Kompor gas 4 unit Rp. 2.000.000
5. Peralatan memasak lainnya Rp. 4.500.000
6. Peralatan makan-minum Rp. 2.500.000
7. Kulkas Rp. 4.500.000
8. Fee untuk tiap 1 chef /bulan Rp. 5.000.000
9. Fee untuk tiap 1 waiters /bulan Rp. 3.000.000
10. Fee untuk kasir /bulan Rp. 3.000.000
11. LED TV 40” 4 unit Rp. 20.000.000
12. Home Theater  1 set Rp. 3.000.000
13. Proyektor 1 unit Rp. 3.000.000
14. Pembuatan banner, baliho, poster Rp. 750.000
JUMLAH RP. 66.750.000

Proposal Usaha Bisnis “Ayam Ketawa

1.      Pendahuluan

Di zaman sekarang ini semakin banyak orang yang tidak memperhatikan hal-hal yang sangat menarik di kehidupan, mereka hanya fokus untuk mencari uang, bekerja siang-malam memakai pakaian rapih dan mendapat gaji. Padahal jika kita mau berusaha kita bisa saja bekerja tanpa harus diatur oleh suatu intansi terkait. Jika kita merasa kita punya ide yang cermelang, yang unik bisa mendatangkan uang maka kita tidak perlu bekerja yang terikat dengan peraturan.

Terkadang manusia melewatkan hal-hal yang unik disekitarnya, maka saya akan berusaha menjadi pembeda. Saya melihat sekitar, lalu mendapatkan suatu hal yang saya anggap tabu namum menarik. Ya, ayam ketawa. Tidak banyak orang yang tahu akan binatang yang unik ini. Kenapa dinamakan ayam ketawa? Ya memang binatang ini adalah ayam namun suara kokoknya berbeda dengan ayam lainnya, suaranya seperti orang sedang tertawa.

Ayam ini selain punya suara kokok seperti orang tertawa disamping itu juga bisa menjadi ayam peliharaan atau mungkin aduan. Dengan perawatan khusus yang saya berikan pada ayam-ayam ini sedari ayam-ayam kecil, serta perawatan ekstra lainnya sehingga ayam ini bisa tumbuh sehat dan mempunyai suara yang semakin bagus. Maka saya memutuskan untuk membuka usaha dibidang penjualan hewan, yaitu, ayam ketawa.

2.     Manfaat usaha

  • Ekonomis

Usaha penjualan ayam ketawa ini cukup menjajikan, karena keuntungan yang saya dapat cukup besar. Saya memberikan kualitas ayam terbaik kepada konsumen, dengan ayam yang sehat, suara ketawa ayam-ayam tersebut yang semakin matang, warna-warni bulu ayamnya, kualitas ayam ketawa yang saya jual ini sebanding dengan harganya karena memang perawatannya sendiri tidaklah mudah dan murah. Dengan usaha ini saya berharap dapat mendaptkan keuntungan.

  • Sosial (bagi masyarakat)

Dengan adanya usaha ayam ketawa ini, saya berharap semakin banyak orang yang mau memelihara ayam dan juga menikmati ketawa ayam tersebut yang terbilang unik.

3.     Rumusan Masalah

A. Bagaimana tips untuk membuka usaha penjualan ayam ketawa?

B. Bagaimana cara menghadapi persaingan usaha bisnis yang semakin ketat ini?

C. Bagaimana cara untuk mendapatkan kesuksesan dalm bisnis ayam ketawa ini?

4.     Produk yang ingin di rumuskan (jelaskan!)

Ayam ketawa, ayam yang mempunyai suara kokok yang unik yaitu menyerupai suara manusia tertawa.

5.      Analisis SWOT

  •     Faktor internal (kekuatan)

– Ayam ketawa ini dirawat dengan sangat baik.

– Ayam ketawa ini dijamin dalam keadaan yang sehat.

– Ayam ketawa yang saya jual ini mempunyai beragam jenis kokok yang berbeda     setiap ayamnya.

– Ayam ketawa ini juga mempunyai beragam warna bulunya.

  •     (Kelemahan)

Faktor minat dalam penjualan ini sangat mempengaruhi, jika sedikit penyuka ayam ketawa maka permintaan akan sedikit.

6.     Rencana usaha jangka panjang dan pendek.

  •     Jangka pendek

Usaha penjua;an ayam ketawa yang sedang saya rintis ini bertujuan untuk menambah ilmu kewirausahaan dalam bisnis. Pengalaman kerja ini dapat meningkatkan kreativitas juga dapat menjadi usaha yang menjanjikan di masa depan.

  •     Jangka panjang

Setelah mendapatkan pembeli yang cukup banyak, saya akan meningkat kualitas ayam-ayam ketawa yang saya jual ini. Tidak lupa saya membuka jaringan kepada toko hewan agar dengan mudah konsumen melihat ayam-ayam ketawa ini.

7.     Analisis pasar dan pemasaran

  •    Target pasar produk yang ingin di jual untuk kalangan siapa

Usaha ini saya buka via online dan langsung datang ke rumah. Targetnya mulai dari kalangan menengah hingga keatas baik itu masyarakat lokal ataupun non lokal.

  •    Pesaing

Terdapat banyak pesaing dalam usaha ini, tetapi disini lah kreatifitas saya diuji bagaimana saya bisa menarik konsumen untuk membeli ayam ketawa saya  tanpa membuat pesaing saya merasa tidak senang dengan tindakan kita. Namun kekeluargaan harus tetap selalu terjaga antara pesaing dan menciptakan persaingan yang sehat tanpa menjatuhkan pesaing. Dengan cara mentaati peraturan dan undang-undang pasar yang telah di tetapkan.

  • Sasaran pembeli

Dalam menjalankan usaha ini, saya menargetkan untuk kalangan menengah dan ke atas. Karena kalangan tersebut sebagain besar mampu membeli ayam-ayam ketawa ini dengan harga Rp. 2.500.000/ekor.

8.     Startegi Pemasaran

Adapun startegi pemasaran yang saya lakukan sebagai berikut      :

  • Dari mulut ke mulut.
  • Dengan media internet.
  • Pengembangan kualitas ayam-ayam ketawa saya.

9.     Langkah-langkah promosi

Untuk menarik pihak konsumen agar tertarik kepada ayam-ayam saya adapun beberapa langkah-langkah promosinya, sebegai berikut       :

  • menjual via online.
  • membagikan brosur.

10.     Analisis operasional

  • Modal

Dalam usaha ini saya mengeluarkan modal Rp. 400.000 untuk membeli ayam ketawa yang masih kecil di perternak ayam dengan jenis ayam yang bagus yaitu yang mempunyai suara ketawa yang bagus dan panjang.

Komunikasi Bisnis

1. Pengertian komunikasi dan teorinya

Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, komunikasi sering dilakukan yang merupakan kebutuhan yang mendasar bagi setiap manusia. Komunikasi secara verbal (lisan) terjadi pada saat seseorang dengan orang lain saling menyampaikan pesan/berdekatan , tetapi apabila berada dalam jarak yang jauh dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan beberapa cara untuk berkomunikasi. Istilah komunikasi dalam bahasa Inggris yakni communication. Pada dasarnya, secara etimologis kata komunikasi berasal dari bahasa Latin yaitu communication yang bersumber pada kata communis berarti milik bersama atau membagi merupakan suatu proses yang bertujuan untuk membangun pengertian dan kebersamaan sedangkan secara terminologis, kata komunikasi merujuk pada proses penyampaian suatu pernyataan oleh pihak satu kepada pihak lain. Pengertian Komunikasi merupakan suatu proses ketika seseorang dengan orang lain saling menyampaikan informasi dari satu pihak ke pihak lain/banyak pihak agar dapat terhubung dengan lingkungan sekitarnya.

Pada dasarnya, komunikasi dilakukan secara verbal oleh kedua belah pihak agar dapat dimengerti. Komunikasi dapat terjadi apabila ada persamaan antara penyampaian pesan dengan penerima pesan. Tanpa adanya bahasa verbal antara kedua belah pihak, komunikasi masih dapat digunakan dengan pergerakan badan dan menunjukkan sikap tertentu, seperti menggelengkan kepala, mengangkat bahu dan tersenyum. Cara ini biasanya disebut sebagai komunikasi nonverbal.

Pengertian Komunikasi menurut para ahli

  • William J. Seller menyatakan bahwa Pengertian Komunikasi adalah proses dimana simbol verbal dan nonverbal dikirimkan, diterima dan diberi arti.
  • Raymond Ross menyatakan bahwa  Pengertian Komunikasi adalah proses menyortir, memilih dan pengiriman simbol-simbol sedemikian rupa agar membantu pendengar membangkitkan respons/ makna dari pemikiran yang serupa dengan yang dimaksudkan oleh komunikator.
  • Carl I. Hovland menyatakan bahwa Pengertian Komunikasi adalah suatu proses yang memungkinkan seseorang menyampaikan rangsangan (biasanya dengan menggunakan lambang verbal) untuk mengubah perilaku orang lain.
  • Onong Uchjana Effendy menyatakan bahwa Pengertian Komunikasi adalah proses penyampaian pesan oleh seseorang kepada orang lain untuk memberitahu, berpendapat, mengubah sikap atau perilaku baik secara langsung ataupun tidak langsung.
  • Colin Cherry menyatakan bahwa Pengertian Komunikasi adalah proses dimana pihak-pihak saling menggunakan informasi untuk mencapai tujuan bersama dan komunikasi merupakan kaitan hubungan yang ditimbulkan oleh penerus rangsangan dan pembangkitan balasannya.
  • Forsdale menyatakan bahwa Pengertian Komunikasi adalah suatu proses dimana suatu sistem dibentuk, dipelihara, dan diubah dengan tujuan bahwa sinyal-sinyal yang dikirimkan dan diterima dilakukan sesuai dengan aturan.
  • Everett M. Rogers menyatakan bahwa Pengertian Komunikasi adalah proses suatu ide dialihkan dari satu sumber kepada satu atau banyak penerima dengan maksud untuk mengubah tingkah laku mereka.
  • Ruben dan Steward menyatakan bahwa Pengertian Komunikasi mengenai manusia merupakan proses yang melibatkan individu-individu dalam suatu hubungan, kelompok, organisasi dan masyarakat yang merespon dan menciptakan pesan untuk beradaptasi dengan lingkungan satu sama lain.

Teori Komunikasi    :

BORMAN, 1989

Teori komunikasi adalah satu perkataan /istilah yang merupakan paying untuksemua perbincangan dan analisis yang dibuat secara berhati-hati, sistematik dansadar, tentang komunikasi.

Teori komunikasi banyak yang menjelaskan dari berbagai kalangan terutamadari kalangan pakar-pakar ilmu komunikasi dan dari definsi-definisi di atas tersebutsaya bias menyimpulkan bahwa teori komunikasi adalah relasi dari berbagaikonsep-konsep komunikasi yang ada dan diterapkan secara keseluruhan atausebagian oleh para komunikator yang ada kaitannya dengan proses komunikasi.

Menjelaskan tentang teori komunikasi tentunya ada yang ganjal jika kita tidakmenjelaskan juga macam-macam dari teori komunikasi itu sendiri karena sejak teorikomunikasi muncul ada banyak orang yang mengutarakan pendapat, dan dibagimenjadi berbagai macam-macam teori komunikasi.

Dibawah ini adalah sebagian banyak tentang macam-macam teori komunikasi di antaranya aadalah;

  1. Teoribehaviorisme

Ilmuwan komunikasi yang mendukung toeri behaviorisme ini adalah JhonB.watson (1878-1958) ilmuwan ini di Amerika disebut sebagai bapak behaveorisme, teori inimenyebutkan bahwa dari semua prilaku, termasuk tindak balasan atau yang dikenaldengan respon itu semua ditimbulkan dari adanya rangsangan (stimulus), pernyataan tersebut kita bias menyimpulkan bahwa jika suatu rangsangan telahdiamati dan diketahui maka respon dari seseorang tersebut akan mudah dan dapatdiprediksikan, dari setiap prilaku dapat kita pelajari melalui hubungan stimulus danjuga respon.

  1. TeoriInformasi

Teori informasi ini adalah sebagian dari teori komunikasi yang klasik, teori inimerupakan bentuk penjabaran dari karya Claude Shannon dan Warren Weaver (1949, Weaver. 1949), dalam teori ini disebutkan bahwa komunikasi sebagaitranmisi pesan dan bagaimana transmitter menggunakan saluran dan media dalamberkomunikasi di dalam teori komunikasi informasi ini menitik beratkan pada saluranatau media yang digunakan oleh transmitter jika sinyal dalam media ini tidak baikmaka proses komunikasi tersebut akan tidak lancer begitupunjuga sebaliknya.

  1. Teori agenda setting

Teori ini hamper sama dengan teori informasi karena dalam teori agenda setting inisama-sama bergantung pada media, teori ini diperkenalkan oleh McCombs dan DL Shaw (1972). Toeri ini berargumen bahwa media sangat member tekanan kepadasuatu peristiwa, dari peristiwa itu media mengangkat peristiwa tersebut danmempengaruhi khalayak untuk menganggap peristiwa tersebutpenting.Kesimpulannya jika hal apa yang dianggap penting oleh media, makapenting juga bagi khalayak(masyaakat).

  1. Teori uses and gratifications(kegunaandankepuasan)

Teori yang dikemukakan oleh Herbert Blumerdan Elihu Katz (1974).Dalam teori inihal yang di utamakan adalah pengguna media, pengguna media mempunyai peranaktif dalam teori ini, untuk memilih dan menggunakan media tersebut.

  1. Teoridependensiefekkomunikasimassa

Teori dependensi efek komunikasi dikembangkan oleh Sandra Ball-Rokeachdan Melvin L. DeFluer (1976), teori ini lebih menfokuskan kepada kondisi structuraldalam suatu masyarakat dari structural masyarakat ini kecendurangan akan terjadisuatu efek media massa. Teori ini bisa diakusisi oleh para komunitas masyarakat modern dan bagaimana masyarakat modern mempunyai anggapan bahwa media massa adalah pusat informasi yang mempunyai andil penting dalam proses memelihara, perubahan, dan konflik dalam tataran masyarakat dan masalahperorangan dalam suatu aktivasi sosial.

Sebagian besar penelitian terhadap efek komunikasi massa bisa dirumuskansebagai berikut;

  • Kognitif; pembentukan sikap serta memperluas keyakinan terhadap masyarakat
  • Afektif; berusaha membuat masyarakat ketakutan dan cemas, serta meningkat kan atau menurunkan dukungan moral.
  • Behavioral; menggerakkan dan mengaktifkan pembentukan suatu isu tertentu untuk suatu aktivitas masyarakat.

2. Pengertian komunikasi bisnis dan teorinya

Pengertian Komunikasi Bisnis – Dalam perjalanan organisasi bisnis, aspek komunikasi menjadi salah satu faktor penentu dalam tercapainya tujuan organisasi. Tentunya hal tersebut akan diraih jika komunikasinya dilakukan secara efektif. Seorang pimpinan lazimnya memerintahkan atau memberi instruksi pada bawahannya untuk
membuat surat pesanan barang, menjawab atau membuat surat pengaduan, surat edaran umum, kontrak kerjasama, membuat surat balasan dan sejenisnya merupakan hal yang rutin dalam dunia bisnis dan semuanya membutuhkan komunikasi.

Untuk memahami komunikasi bisnis secara utuh, berikut ini kami uraikan sejumlahpengertian komunikasi bisnis menurut para ahli

Menurut Purwanto (2006:4), Pengertian komunikasi bisnis adalah komunikasi yang digunakan dalam dunia bisnis yang mencakup berbagai macam bentuk komunikasi baik komunikasi verbal maupun nonverbal untuk mencapai tujuan tertentu. Pada dasarnya, terdapat 2 bentuk dasar komunikasi dalam dunia bisnis, yaitu komunikasi verbal dan nonverbal.  

  • Komunikasi verbal merupakan salah satu bentuk komunikasi untuk menyampaikan pesan-pesan bisnis kepada pihak lain baik tertulis (written) maupun lisan (oral). Komunikasi verbal ini memiliki struktur teratur dan terorganisasi dengan baik, sehingga tujuan penyampaian pesan-pesan bisnis dapat tercapai dengan baik. Dalam dunia bisnis, beberapa contoh komunikasi verbal yakni: penyampaian pesan melalui surat, memo, teknologi komunikasi modern, rapat pimpinan, briefing kepada karyawan, wawancara kerja, dan presentasi, dan lain-lain.
  • Komunikasi Nonverbal. Berdasarkan teori antropologi, sebelum manusia menggunakan kata-kata, mereka telah menggunakan komunikasi nonverbal dalam gerakan-gerakan tubuh, bahasa tubuh (body language) sebagai alat untuk berkomunikasi dengan orang lain. Contoh sederhana komunikasi nonverbal : sikap seseorang yang secara spontan mengerutkan dahi, raut muka yang berubah, atau mata berkedip-kedip tanpa disengaja dan tak pernah direncanakan sebelumnya. Contoh lainnya, disaat Anda memperoleh kabar bahwa anak kesayangan anda satu-satunya mendapatkan penghargaan sebagai juara pertama dalam lomba tingkat nasional atau internasional! Bagaimana reaksi anda pada saat itu? Senang bercampur haru, Atau melihat ekspresi wajah rekan Anda yang menghadapi masalah, kesusahan maupun mereka yang senang atau gembira.

Menurut Katz (1994:4), Komunikasi Bisnis didefinisikan sebagai adanya pertukaran ide, pesan, dan konsep yang berkaitan dengan pencapaian serangkaian tujuan komersil. Komunikasi bisnis diartikan sebagai komunikasi yang terjadi dalam dunia bisnis dalam rangka mencapai tujuan dari bisnis tersebut.

Menurut Rosenbaltt (1982:7), pengertian komunikasi bisnis dikemukakan dalam pernyataan: Business Communication are purposive interchange of ideas, opinions, information, instructions, and the like, presented personally or impersonally by symbols or signal as attain the goals of the organizations (Komunikasi Bisnis merupakan pertukaran ide, opini, informasi, instruksi dan sejenisnya, yang disajikan secara personal ataupun nonpersonal melalui simbol atau tanda untuk mencapai tujuan perusahaan)

Menurut Persing (1981:108); Business communication may be defined as the spiraling process of the transaction of meanings through symbolic action involving all elements associated with sending and receiving written, oral, and nonverbal messages internal to organizations of paid people working together to produce and market goods and services for profit (Komunikasi bisnis dapat didefinisikan sebagai proses penyampaian arti melalui lambang-lambang yang meliputi keseluruhan unsur yang berhubungan dengan proses penyampaian dan penerimaan pesan, baik itu dalam bentuk tulisan, lisan, maupun nonverbal yang dilakukan di dalam suatu organisasi yang membayar orang yang secara bersama-sama memproduksi dan memasarkan barang-barang dan jasa guna memperoleh keuntungan)

Menurut Curtis (1992:6), Komunikasi bisnis adalah komunikasi dalam organisasi bisnis yang ditujukan untuk menyelesaikan masalah dan membuat keputusan. Menurutnya, semakin tinggi kedudukan seseorang dalam bisnis, ia akan semakin bergantung pada keahlian seseorang dalam membuat keputusan dan memecahkan masalah untuk suatu keberhasilan.

3. Komunikasi bisnis mengarah pada

penyelarasan bisnis yang mengarah kepada pencapaian bisnis.

Referensi    :